The slave population of this district is very numerous—whilst the white is extremely small. For the purposes of police, there are not left us along the Rivers, men enough in any neighborhood to form a suitable Patrol. The government of the Police Court is the sole authority remaining to us to control the negroes and to keep order. The constant presence and proximity of the enemy exercise an unhappy influence over them and it has been the duty of the Police Court to resort to severe measures, in order to repress their demoralized spirit. In the past three years, eleven have accordingly been sentenced to suffer the extreme penalty of the Law and have been executed, and others have been punished for offenses committed against the peace and good order of the community—a condition of perfect quiet now exists here among us. …the status of the Police Court ought to be sustained, with a view to its dignity and usefulness, or its existence abolished.
Francis L. Parker, President of Police Court of Georgetown District to Governor Andrew G. Magrath, 24 December 1864
On the 1st of February the After Slavery Project, together with the Carolina Lowcountry and Atlantic World Program hosted a day-long teachers’ workshop on “Teaching the New History of Emancipation” at the College of Charleston. The program included a series of panels on the relationship between slavery and the war, on new online resources for teaching emancipation, and on teaching outside the traditional classroom. The aim of the workshop was to lay the foundations for ongoing collaboration between college- and university-based research historians and a diverse constituency of high school teachers and curriculum experts, archivists and public historians, site interpreters and National Park Service personnel. Lincoln Prize winning historian Eric Foner gave a keynote based on his recent The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery, which we will post in the coming days, and the generous support of the Humanities Council South Carolina (HCSC) meant that the organizers were able to partially fund almost 6000 miles of travel for teachers from across the Carolinas and as far north as Virginia.
One of the key themes in the first full session, on “The Carolinas in the Vortex of War,” was the varied experience of emancipation across the wartime and post-Civil War South. LuAnn Jones of the National Park Service developed some of the insights present in David Cecelski’s work on coastal North Carolina, where the slaves’ close familiarity with the rivers and coastal inlets transformed them into escape routes akin to the much better-known underground railroad–‘waterways to freedom’. Janette Thomas Greenwood (see our interview with her here) followed with a talk on “Union Occupation and the Disintegration of Slavery,” based on her important work on eastern North Carolina in First Fruits of Freedom. Bernard E. Powers, Jr., Chair of the African American Studies Program at the College of Charleston and the author of an important study of emancipation and its aftermath in Charleston, spoke about the urban experience of emancipation, and Brian Kelly showed how the chaos and disruptions brought on by the war helped to spread disaffection among the enslaved in “Slave Refugeeing and Disaffection in the Upcountry.”
The second session emphasized the value of non-textual resources for teaching emancipation. Amy Kirschke, a professor of Art History at UNC Wilmington, led with a presentation on “Visualizing Emancipation through Art.” Joseph McGill, whose Slave Dwelling Project has expanded in recent years across the South and beyond, shared his experiences in visiting slave cabins alongside students of all ages, and spoke about the importance of these sites for engaging young learners. Lisa Randle directs education and outreach at Magnolia Plantation: she told a captivating story about the layers of history uncovered in tracing the history of former plantations, and about the uphill struggle that freedpeople’s descendants endured in trying to hold on to land acquired after emancipation. A third panel introduced a range of more traditional classroom materials for teaching emancipation: Kerry Taylor of The Citadel College spoke about the enduring value of the WPA Slave Narratives for oral histories of slavery and its disintegration, but also highlighted some of their problems, noting especially the segregated context in which the original interviews were carried out and the reluctance of black Southerners to speak freely. Dwana Waugh introduced some of the digital resources made available from the Avery Research Center in recent years, and John White from the Lowcountry Digital Library spoke about the After Slavery Project and some of the other exciting developments at LDL. The highlight of the afternoon was Eric Foner’s keynote on “Lincoln and Emancipation,” introduced by Professor Powers, and which we will post on this blog in the coming days.
The Charleston workshop was a good start, but its real aim was to jump start an ongoing collaboration between research historians and high school educators, and in the weeks since we have been working to build on those relationships through a series of local meetings with high school teachers in North and South Carolina. At present we are working to put together a series of lesson plans that align with the K-12 state history standards, and will be digging out some of the most compelling documents in our archives to produce the very best, high-quality online teaching resources available in either state on slave emancipation and its aftermath. We’re excited about the possibilities, and hope that any of our readers who are engaged in teaching or teaching administration will stay tuned and, if possible, get involved in this important work as it proceeds.
Over the coming months the After Slavery website will be undergoing an exciting transformation. Since its move to a new home at the College of Charleston’s Lowcountry Digital Library more than a year ago, we know that our Online Classroom has been widely used in history classrooms in college and university settings across the US, and in some expected and unexpected places elsewhere around the globe. Over the spring and summer of 2013, we aim to add an important new dimension to the site: high-quality digital and interactive content intended for the high school classroom and created in a unique collaboration between research historians and high school educators, curriculum experts, heritage workers and public historians, archivists and others.
Why now? We believe the round of Civil War-related commemorations inaugurated early last month with the 150th anniversary of the Emancipation Proclamation presents a unique opportunity for educators at all levels. The best of the scholarship published over the past generation confirms both the central importance of slavery during the war and the role of the slaves themselves in bringing down the old order and trying to shape the new one. Yet in popular memory and–too often–in high school classrooms, the active involvement of slaves and freedpeople in the war and its aftermath is seldom acknowledged, the meaning and deep significance of these world-changing events too frequently lost beneath a mountain of mostly superficial detail. With a focus on the process of emancipation in the Carolinas and a rich collection of source materials at is disposal, the After Slavery Project aims to bridge the gulf between new research, popular memory, and the ways in which young people in high school classrooms learn about this critical period in our past.
This blog will play an important role in the transformation of the site–serving as an online meeting ground for teachers and other history educators spread across the Carolinas and as a sounding board as we work together with you to produce stimulating new classroom materials–lesson plans and ‘out-of-the-box’ online learning teaching packages, traveling exhibits, visual aids, and regional workshops modeled on the very successful one we’ve just held in Charleston.
Along with the opportunities for exciting new collaborations with educators beyond the walls of the university, the Blog will make it possible for After Slavery to offer new resources for professional historians and graduate students interested in slave emancipation in the US. Later this week we will publish the first of many in-depth interviews with historians working on the Civil War- and Reconstruction-era Carolinas and on emancipation-related topics generally. All of which is to say stick around and have your say, and tell your friends and colleagues to stop by. We’re excited about the new plans for the site, and glad to have you along for the journey.